i didnt understand the concept of proportion i mean what would that proportion column look like if pass or fail is a boolean ?

`proportion of pass students`

here is a population parameter and it will have ONE VALUE only for entire population.

In this particular example:

proportion = \frac{Number\ of\ students\ passing\ the\ examination}{Total\ number\ of\ students}

Note that for calculating *number of students passing the examination*, you can simply add `1's`

and `0's`

assigned to each student.